GLOSSARY OF TERMS
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Former lobbyist who, in 2006, pleased guilty to defrauding Native American tribes.
Abramoff collected fees from the tribes to lobby on behalf of their casinos. The tribes received virtually no benefit from the fees. In fact, Abramoff worked to sabotage a casino in order to collect more fees.
He was sentenced to more than 5 years in prison.
Secretary of Labor under President Donald Trump
Acosta was dean of the Florida International University law school. A graduate of Harvard Law School, he clerked for Supreme Court Justice Samuel Alito when he was a judge on the 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. He served on the National Labor Relations Board under President George W. Bush, as the head of the Justice Department's Civil Rights Division, and as U.S. attorney in Miami.
The son of Cuban immigrants, Acosta serves on the American Bar Association's Commission on Hispanic Legal Rights and Responsibilities. He has defended the rights of Muslim Americans, including criticizing France when it introduced a ban on certain religious attire.
While at the Justice Department, Acosta wrote a letter to a federal judge in Ohio supporting a Republican voter caging effort just before the 2004 presidential election. Bush won Ohio.
When running the Justice Department's civil rights division, he was found by the department's inspector general to have ignored warnings about a subordinate accused of illegally using political affiliations to vet potential civil rights attorneys.
As U.S. attorney for Southern Florida, Acosta gave a plea deal to billionaire investor and political donor Jeffrey Epstein, who was accused of having sex with dozens of underage girls. Under the plea, Epstein served about a year in prison. Epstein was a member of Mar-A-Lago - Trump's Florida home and golf club.
For more, read the Guardian story.
For more on Acosta's support of voter caging, read the McClatchy DC Bureau story.
For more on Acosta's issue with politically-motivated hiring at the Justice Department, read the Guardian report.
Anthony, Susan B.
Cofounder of the National Woman Suffrage Association, which fought for women having the right to vote.
That right was granted in 1920 with the Constitution's 19th Amendment - which became known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment.
For more, visit the Susan B. Anthony Museum.
Azar, Alex M.
Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) under President Donald Trump. He replaced Tom Price, who resigned in September 2017.
Prior to become the HHS secretary, Azar worked in the George W. Bush administration. He also is a former executive with pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly.
Bannon, Stephen K.
Attorney General in the Donald Trump administration from 2019 through 2020. He also served as attorney general in the George H.W. Bush administration.Referenced by...
Deputy Assistant Administrator of the Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP) in the Trump administration.
She is a former director of the American Chemistry Council (ACC).
She also reviewed EPA regulations in the George W. Bush administration.
In 2019, Bernhardt became acting Secretary of the Interior after the resignation of Ryan Zinke.
Bernhardt served in President George W. Bush's interior department from 2001 to 2008.
Both before and after his time in the Bush administration, he worked for lobbying firm Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck LLP. His client list included oil industry trade group the Independent Petroleum Association of America; the world's largest oilfield services provider, Halliburton; and affiliates of major oil producer Noble Energy Inc.
For more about Bernhardt, read the Bloomberg story.Referenced by...
The son of former Vice President Joe Biden.
Governor of Illinois from 2003 to 2009.
In 2009, he was impeached and removed from office for soliciting bribes - including for Barack Obama's vacated Senate seat after Obama was elected president.
He also was convicted for the criminal offenses, and served 8 years of a 14-year sentence before being pardoned by President Donald Trump.
Advisor to President Donald Trump's acting Chief of Staff Mick Mulvaney.
For more, read the Newsweek story.
Brechbuhl, T. Ulrich
Advisor to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo.
For more, read the Vox story.
Fomer fundraiser for the Republican Party.
On Jan. 20, 2021, he was pardoned by President Donald Trump after he pleaded guilty to accepting money to convince the Trump administration to end an embezzlement investigation of a Malaysian investment fund.
Lobbyist who helped write then-candidate Donald Trump's first major foreign policy speech while at the same time working to promote a pipeline for the Russian government.Referenced by...
A Republican political strategist, he worked in public communication for presidential campaigns of George H.W. Bush and Donald Trump.
Caputo lived in Russia from 1994 - 2000. Among other things, he worked for Russian media company Gazprom-Media to enhance the image of Russian President Vladimir in the United States.
Chao, ElaineReferenced by...
Cheney, Richard (Dick)
Michael Chertoff was the Secretary of Homeland Security 2005 - 2009.
In 2009 he founded the Chertoff Group lobbying company. One of the company's clients was OSI Systems - the parent company of Rapiscan Systems which makes one of the two types of body scanners used at U.S. airports. In 2011 all 250 Rapiscan scanners - which had cost $180,000 each - were removed from airports due to their inability to blur images that depicted passengers' bodies.
Governor of New Jersey from 2010 - 2018Referenced by...
Cipollone, Pat A.
Counsel to President Donald Trump
Clark, Fred Davis, Jr
Pornographic film actress who works under the name Stormy Daniels (also Stormy Waters).Referenced by...
President Donald Trump's personal lawyer. He also is executive vice president for the Trump Organization.Referenced by...
Comey, JamesReferenced by...
Donald Trump's campaign manager at the end of the 2016 campaign in which he was elected president.
She also served as Counselor to the President from 2017 - 2020.
Secretary of Education under President Donald Trump.
She had no prior professional education experience. She is a former chair of the Michigan Republican Party.
She chaired the American Federation for Children, a dark money group that supports school voucher programs and charter schools nationwide, funneling donations from undisclosed sources to candidates who support school privatization, mostly at the state level.
DeVos' father, Edgar Prince, co-founded the Family Research Council and the Edgar and Elsa Prince Foundation, major financial backers of the religious right. Her husband, Richard DeVos Jr., is heir to the Amway multi-level marketing company fortune. The couple founded the Windquest Group investment firm.
DeVos and her relatives - including her brother Erik Prince, co-founder of the Blackwater private security company - have been major donors to the Republican Party for decades.
Appointed official in the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under President Donald Trump.
He formerly was executive director of the Wisconsin Republican Party and Defense Department liaison to the White House under President George W. Bush.
For more, read the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel story.
Duncan, Robert "Mike"
National Security Council legal advisor under President Donald Trump.
For more, read the Politico story.
For more, read the NPR story.
A financier who pleaded guilty in 2008 to sexual offenses in an unusually lenient plea bargain. The deal was approved by Alexander Acosta - then the U.S. attorney for the Southern District of Florida.
The charges included sex with underage girls.
Epstein has had close friendships with Donald Trump, Bill Clinton, the United Kingdom's Prince Andrew, and actor Kevin Spacey.
Esper, Mark T
Secretary of the Army from 2017-2019.
In June 2019 he became the acting Secretary of Defense after Patrick Shanahan resigned.
Prior to his military administration positions, he was employed by defense contractor Raytheon as vice president for Government Relations.
He also has worked for the Heritage Foundation.
President Donald Trump's first National Security Adviser.
Resigned less than a month into the administration after revelations that he discussed foreign policy with Russia before Trump had taken office.
Click here to read more on Flynn's connections to Russia.Referenced by...
Member of Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign.
During the campaign, he is believed to have had repeated contacts with Russian intelligence officers.
Giuliani, Rudolph (Rudy)
Former president Donald Trump's personal attorney since April 2018.
Giuliani was the mayor of New York City from 1994-2001
For a history of Giuliani's relationship with Trump, read the Politico story.Referenced by...
Gordon, SueReferenced by...
Griffith, Preston Wells
Campaign consultant for the Republican party and energy and climate advisor to President Donald Trump.
For more, read the E&E News story.
Haley, NikkiReferenced by...
The first U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, appointed by Pres. George Washington.
He also was one of the authors of the Federalist Papers.
Former employee of the Trump Organization, Hicks has served in communications and advisory roles for the Trump administration.Referenced by...
Huckabee Sanders, Sarah
Press secretary for the Trump administration July 2017 - July 2019. Prior to that, she was deputy press secretary.
She is the daughter of former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee.
Governor of Arkansas July 1996 - January 2007.
He was a candidate in the 2008 and 2016 Republican presidential primaries.
Georgia governor elected in 2018.
As a Republican candidate against Democrat Stacey Abrams, Kemp also was the Georgia Secretary of State in charge of the state's elections.
Son of Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy.
Kennedy worked for more than 10 years at Deutsche Bank. At one point he was head of the the bank's real estate capital markets organization at the time Donald Trump was borrowing more than $1 billion from the bank.
He later became co-CEO of LNR property, which in 2011 invested in a failing property owned by Trump's son-in-law Jared Kushner'.
Deputy assistant secretary in the State Department's Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs
From 2015 to 2019, Kent was deputy chief of mission in Kyiv, Ukraine.
Former New York City police commissioner under then-mayor Rudy Giuliani.
In 2004 Kerik was nominated by President George W. Bush to be secretary of Homeland Security, but a week later withdrew from consideration amid allegations of corruption - including lobbying city officials on behalf of a construction company with suspected ties to organized crime.
In 2009 Keric pleaded guilty to felonies including corruption and tax fraud. He served three years in federal prison.
Kansas Secretary of State 2011-present.
In 2017, Kobach was named by President Donald Trump to be vice chair of his Election Integrity Commission.
Kobach was one of the prime architects of Arizona SB-1070 - the 2010 Arizona law requiring police to determine the immigration status of someone arrested or detained when there is "reasonable suspicion" they are not in the U.S. legally.
Charles Koch and David Koch are the owners of Koch Industries.
The Kansas-based company makes much of its money in energy production, but subsidiaries also manufacture products with mainstream name brands, including Quilted Northern, Dixie, Brawny, Zee, Sparkle, and Stainmaster.
In 1980, David Kock was the Libertarian Party's vice-presidential candidate. The party's platform included abolishing...
The platform called for privatizing all public schools, roads, railroads, inland waterways, and "the distribution system that brings water to industry, agriculture and households."
It also called for eliminating these agencies...
The Koch brothers have continued that mission of achieving those goals by contributing and raising billions of dollars for conservative organizations and to help the campaigns of Republican candidates for law-making offices. They were expected to spend almost $1 billion in the 2016 presidential election.
They also are strong supporters American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC). A Koch Industries rep has served on ALEC's Private Enterprise Advisory Council for more than 20 years, and the company is believed be on of ALEC's biggest funders (although the group is not required to disclose its donors).
Father of Donald Trump's son-in-law Jared Kushner.
Ivanka Trump's husband.
After becoming president, Donald Trump appointed Kushner to be a senior adviser to the Trump administration.
Secretary of Transportation from 2009-2013 in the Barack Obama administration.
LaHood served in the House of Representatives from 1995 - 2009.
Acting Director of National Intelligence (DNI) since Aug 2019.
He replaced Dan Coats, who resigned.
Maguire assumed the position after President Donald Trump twice bypassed Principal Deputy Director Sue Gordon - despite the law requiring Gordon to become the acting director.
Maguire is a former Navy vice admiral. After retiring from the Navy, he became an executive for defense contractor Booz Allen Hamilton.
He most recently was head of the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC).
Campaign manager for Donald Trump from from March 2016 until August 2016. He left the campaign due to his connections with Russia.Referenced by...
Manning, Chelsea (Bradley)
In 2010, then Army intelligence analyst Bradley Manning gave stolen classified information he stole to WikiLeaks, including this video showing U.S. helicopters killing civilians in Iraq.
Manning was sentenced to 35 years in prison for espionage and theft.
In 2014, Manning, who served in the military as a male but is transgender, legally became Chelsea Manning.
In January 2018, President Barack Obama commuted Manning's sentence. She was released from prison in May 2018.
For more, read a biography of Manning at Biography.com.Referenced by...
Mattis was Secretary of Defense under President Donald Trump from 2017-2019.
Before that, he was Marine Corps general.
Former chief of staff to Energy Secretary Rick Perry.
For more, read the Reuters story.
Miller, Christopher C.
Secretary of the Treasury under President Donald Trump.
He had no prior government experience.
Before becoming treasury secretary, Mnuchin ran Dune Capital, a privately owned hedge fund. Prior to that he worked for 17 years at Goldman Sachs investment bank, where he was a partner.
In 2009, Mnuchin led the group that bought failed subprime lender IndyMac, renaming the bank OneWest. Over the next six years, Mnuchin and his fellow investors doubled their money. During that time the bank foreclosed on more than 35,000 mortgages - forcing families from their homes. Federal regulators charged the bank with filing false documents during foreclosures.
Mnuchin also was the executive producer of movies American Sniper and Mad Max: Fury Road.
During his Senate confirmation process, Mnuchin failed to disclose $100 million in assets on disclosure documents required by the Office of Government Ethics (OGE). He also did not mention his role as a director of an investment fund located in a tax haven.
Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs in the Trump administration.
He previously had been Ambassador to the U.S. Mission to the United Nations in Geneva in the George W. Bush administration.
In 2003, he wrote an opinion article about Guantánamo Bay, claiming that prisoners there are treated well and denying the use of torture to coerce prisoners to confess.
He also was a senior adviser to former Vice President Richard (Dick) Cheney during the 2000 presidential campaign.
Mueller III, Robert
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) director from 2001 to 2013.
In May 2017, after President Donald Trump fired FBI Director James Comey, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Mueller to be special counsel overseeing the investigation into Russian influence in the 2016 presidential election.
Personal attorney to Donald Trump and his organization.
He is a former law partner of Rudy Giuliani.
For more, read the BuzzFeed story.
Mulvaney, Michael John (Mick)Referenced by...
O'Brien, Robert C.
National security adviser under President Donald TrumpReferenced by...
Former member of Donald Trump's presidential campaign.Referenced by...
Foreign policy adviser to Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign.
In October 2017 he pleaded guilty to lying to the FBI about meetings he had with Russian contacts. He had said those meetings took place before his involvement with the Trump campaign.
He agreed to cooperate with the investigation into Trump's Russian connections.
Chief of Staff to Defense Secretary Christopher Miller. Both were named to their positions after President Donald Trump lost the 2020 election.
Patel is a former aid to Rep. Devin Nunes, and was the lead author of a report to discredit the investigation into Russia's interference in the 2016 presidential election.
For more on Patel's role in the investigation into Russian influence in U.S. elections, read The Atlantic story.Referenced by...
Patten, SamReferenced by...
Secretary of Agriculture under President Donald Trump since April 2017.
He served as governor of Georgia from 2003 to 2011. Prior to that, he served in the Georgia state Senate from 1990 to 2001.
He received more than $278,000 in farm subsidies from 1995 to 2004, according to the Environmental Working Group.
As Georgia's governor, Perdue signed into law measures based on American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) model legislation, including the nation's second voter ID law and a school-choice program described by ALEC co-founder Paul Weyrich as "the most expansive in the nation."
He was worth more than $6 million and owned agriculture businesses worth nearly $2.8 million, according to a financial disclosure statement from his 2006 campaign.
Secretary of Energy under President Donald Trump from 2017 to 2019.
He was appointed in spite of campaigning to eliminate the department and having no experience with nuclear weapons - an area that comprises much of the department's responsibilities.
Indicted as governor of Texas
Perry was governor of Texas from 2000 to 2015.
In 2014, he was indicted for abusing his power as governor. The charges eventually were dropped.
In the late 1990s, Pizzella worked as a lobbyist on behalf of a shell company connected to the Russian government.
He also has worked with Jack Abramoff, the former lobbyist convicted of fraud in 2006. His work involved hampering worker protections in the Northern Mariana Islands.
Click here to view the lobbying registration document for the Bahamas-based shell company listing Pizzella as "Director of Coalitions".Referenced by...
Pogue, PaulReferenced by...
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under President Donald Trump.
Prior to being named EPA director he was Oklahoma's attorney general. During his tenure as attorney general, he filed lawsuits against the EPA in attempts to force the agency to stop enforcing clean air requirements. Since 2002 he has received more than $250,000 in donations from the oil and gas industry.
Pruitt, is a former member of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC).
Rosen, Jeffrey A.
Acting Attorney General for the final month of President Donald Trump's administration.
President Donald Trump's former personal bodyguard.Referenced by...
Shanahan was the deputy Secretary of Defense since 2017. He became acting defense secretary on Jan. 1, 2019 when Jim Mattis was fired by President Donald Trump.
He is an engineer and a former executive at Boeing.
For more about Shanahan, read The Atlantic article.
President Donald Trump's re-election campaign manager starting July 2020.
He previously was White House Director of Political Affairs in the Trump administration.
Lobbyist and political consultant. He is a longtime friend of Donald Trump.
Stone has worked on the political campaigns of Republicans including Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, and Trump.
In 1980, he co-founded a lobbying firm with a group that included Paul Manafort.
Senior Advisor to the Bureau of International Organization Affairs (IO) in the Trump administration. She left in 2019 under the shadow of an investigation by the State Department's Inspector General.
Stull previously had been a lobbyist for the food industry.
She also writes a bog about wine, and is known as the Vino Vixen.
Thompson, Sandra L.
Secretary of State under President Donald Trump from February 2017 to March 2018.
For more, read the New York Times story.
At the time of his nomination, Tillerson had no government or diplomatic experience. He spent his entire career at ExxonMobil - starting as an engineer in 1975 until being named Chief Executive Officer (CEO) in 2006.
He does, however, have strong business ties to leaders around the world, most notably Russian President Vladimir Putin. The two first met in 1999, while Tillerson was responsible for Exxon's holdings in Russia.
In 2011 the company signed an agreement to explore and drill in the arctic and Siberia with oil company Rosneft, which is majority owned by the Russian government. The deal - which could generate up to $500 billion for Exxon - was put on hold because of U.S. and European Union sanctions against Russia for its invasion of the Ukraine.
The State Department helps decide on and administer sanctions.
ExxonMobil has given nearly $2 million to the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) since 1998.
For more, read the New York Times story.
Trainor, James E. (Trey)
Trump, Donald Jr.
Donald Trump's eldest son.Referenced by...
Donald Trump's son.Referenced by...
Donald Trump's daughter.Referenced by...
Daughter of former President Donald TrumpReferenced by...
Vance, Cyrus Jr.
District Attorney of New York County, New York since 2010.
He is the son of Cyrus Vance, who served as secretary of state under President Jimmy Carter.
For more, read the Washington Post story.Referenced by...
Vought, Russell T.
Deputy director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under President Donald Trump.
For more, read the Washington Post story.
Supreme Court justice from 1953 to 1969. Warren was Chief Justice.
Chief Financial Officer of the Trump Organization.
Other roles he has played for the Trump family include...
Acting administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
He previously was the EPA's deputy director. He became the acting director when previous director Scott Pruitt resigned.
Prior to that, Wheeler was a lobbyist, mainly for the fossil-fuel industry. His top client, coal company Murray Energy, paid him to lobby against the Obama administration's regulations.
Wheeler is a former aide to Sen. James Inhofe, an outspoken climate-change denier.
For more about Wheeler, read this article by the Natural Resources Defense Council.
Whitaker was chief of staff to former Attorney General Jeff Sessions.
When Sessions was fired by President Donald Trump, Trump named Whitaker to be the acting attorney general.
Alter Wiener is a Holocaust survivor living in the Portland, Oregon area. He spent three years of his teens imprisoned in five Nazi Germany concentration camps. Virtually his entire family was murdered.
His autobiography, From a Name to a Number, was published in 2007.
He has no financial interest in the book, and it is available from major booksellers as well as in public libraries.
Watch this video to hear Alter discuss his life story...
U.S. Ambssador to Ukraine from 2016 to 2019.
President Donald Trump removed her from her diplomatic role in May 2019. The effort to remove her, however, began a year before it became a central issue in the impeachment of President Donald Trump.
In the way of shady deals
Yovanovitch was supporting anti-corruption safeguards in Ukraine. Those safeguards would have preempted a deal to sell large amounts of liquified natural gas from Texas to the Ukrainian oil company Naftogaz, according to an investigation by the Associated Press.
The frontmen for the deal were Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman, according to an indictment of the two.
The effort to remove Yovanovitch included a letter in 2018 from then-Rep. Pete Sessions to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo requesting that she be removed.
Around that time, Sessions received illegal campaign contributions from Parnas and Fruman, the indictment claims.
Note: Sessions was not directly mentioned in the indictment. However, a "Congressman-1" was mentioned, and actions of that congressman match those of Sessions.
At least one Ukrainian government official involved
The indictment claims that Parnas and Fruman also were woking to advance the political interests of a Ukrainian government official.
That official is believed to be former Ukrainian Prosecutor General Yuriy Lutsenko.
In March 2019, Lutsenko claimed that Yovanovitch had given him a list of people he should not prosecute.
The State Department called that claim "an outright fabrication." Lutsenko himself later retracted the claim.
Trump associates saw Yovanovitch as blocking Biden inquiry
Trump's personal attorney Rudy Giuliani had said he considered Yovanovitch to be an obstacle in uncovering disparaging information about former Vice President Joe Biden - a possible opponent of Trump in the 2020 presidential election.
Soon after, Donald Trump Jr. referred to Yovanovitch as a "joker" in a Twitter post.
President Trump himself also disparaged her.
For more, read the Washington Post story.
For more about Yovanovich, read the NPR story.
For more on the natural gas deal that Parnas and Fruman were trying to accomplish, read the Associated Press report.
For more on Sessions' efforts to remove Yovanovitch, see the Dallas News timeline.
Click here to read the letter from Sessions to Pompeo requesting that Yovanovitch be removed from her position as ambassador to Ukraine.