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Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

The gas that makes up most of emitted greenhouse gases.

Clean Air Act

The Clean Air Act is a series of laws that were enacted to make the air we breathe cleaner by reducing the amount of pollutants emitted by cars, factories, etc.

It was first enacted in 1963, but has been updated several times as the understanding of air pollution improved.

Clean Power Plan (CPP)

A 2015 policy issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce pollution from power plants.

Referenced by...
Climate report shows impacts on daily life (2018-Nov-23)

Climate Action Plan

A comprehensive plan proposed by the Barack Obama administration in 2013 to address Climate Change.

Climate Change

One of the primary effects of Global Warming.

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)

Federally mandated fuel economy standards for cars and light trucks sold in the United States. They were enacted in 1975 by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act.

Manufacturers are measured against the standard by the average fuel mileage of all the vehicles they sold in a year. Therefore, a manufacturer's score is affected both by the efficiency of their vehicles and by the distribution of smaller cars to larger ones.

If a manufacturer does not meet the CAFE standards in a year, it is fined approximately $50 for every mile-per-gallon below the requirement - for every car it sold. The fine can be avoided by using credits earned by exceeding the standards in previous years.

Cross-State Air Pollution Rule

DOI Methane and Waste Prevention Rule

A 2016 rule issued by the Department of the Interior (DOI) requiring oil and gas producers to use currently available technologies and processes to cut flaring in half at oil wells on public and tribal lands.

This source of pollution is the second-largest industrial contributor to climate change in the United States, according to the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC).

The rule will result in a reduction of pollution equivalent to almost 1 million cars per year, and recover enough gas to supply about three-quarters of a million homes per year.

The full name of the rule is "Waste Prevention, Production Subject to Royalties, and Resource Conservation".

DOI Stream Protection Rule

A 2016 rule issued by the Department of the Interior (DOI) requiring coal mining companies to avoid practices that permanently pollute streams, destroy drinking water sources, increase flood risk, and threaten forests.

Companies also would be required to monitor streams that could be affected by their mining operations.

In February 2017, Congress voted to prevent this regulation from taking effect.

Endangered Species List

A list of animal, bird, and plant species whose existence is considered at risk.

Species on the list are classified as either...

o Threatened: Likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future

o Endangered: In danger of becoming extinct.

The list is maintained by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), as specified in the 1973 Endangered Species Act.

Referenced by...
Administration proposes weakening Endangered Species Act (2018-Jul-19)

Global Warming

This will be less of a definition than an explanation of how we discuss terms such as global warming and climate change.

First of all, those two terms often are used interchangeably. We differentiate them - referring to global warming as the rise in the earth's temperature and climate change as one of the consequences of global warming.

We will not argue whether these things are taking place. The overwhelming preponderance of evidence and concurrence among scientists makes a few things certain enough to not waste time continuing the argument in News in FiVe's discussions...

o The earth's temperature is rising.
o The cause is mostly due to human activity since the industrial revolution.
o The effects are tangible and will continue to become worse.
o Serious action is required to stop this trend before it becomes irreversible.

Any discussions we have involving the topic will assume the above points.


Image Source: Conserve-Energy-Future.com

Referenced by...
Climate report shows impacts on daily life (2018-Nov-23)

Great Lakes Water Compact

A 2008 agreement among the eight states bordering the Great Lakes that controls how water from the lakes can be used - with the goal being to preserve the lakes.

Greenhouse Gas

Gasses emitted into the earth's atmosphere that trap heat - increasing Global Warming.

Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and water vapor.

Haze

Air pollution that obscures outdoor views.

Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS)

Microbead

A tiny plastic particle (typically smaller than a millimeter) used in cosmetic products such as liquid soap and toothpaste - generally added for exfoliation.

Because most of their use is for personal cleansing, they end up in bodies of water.

They were banned in the United States starting in 2017.

Referenced by...
Microbeads in soaps and cosmetics banned (2015-Dec-31)

Microplastic

Tiny (smaller than 5 millimeter) bits of plastic that are the byproducts of other products containing plastic.

Some estimates have predicted there to be more than 200 thousand tons of microplastics in the world's oceans. Sources of this microplastic pollution include...

o Microscopic fibers from your clothes that either are washed off in the laundry or break off into the air.

o Tire dust that gets washed into sewers.

o Paints, such as dust from road markings.

o Larger pieces of plastic such as forks, straws, bags, takeout containers, and beverage bottles in waters that break apart into smaller and smaller pieces.

o Microbeads from personal cleansing products.

Paris Climate Change Agreement

The main product of a 2015 conference in which 195 countries agreed to limit greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the Earth's temperature rise

It went into effect on November 4, 2016.

Referenced by...
US to withdraw from Paris Climate Agreement (2017-Jun-02)

PFAS

PFASs are a set of related chemicals used in many industrial products such as cleaners, waterproof clothes, furniture, take-out containers, insulation, and non-stick surfaces. They also are used in fire-fighting foams - particularly by the military.

They don't degrade in biological systems - including in humans.

Drinking water contaminated with PFASs has been linked to serious health problems.

A study conducted between 2013 and 2015 found water supplies that serve 6 million people in the United States contained amounts of PFASs greater than the safety limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Most in-home water filters are not able to filter PFASs from tap water..

PFAS is an acronym for Per-and polyFluoroAlkyl Substances.

Referenced by...
Administration hides study showing dangers in drinking water (2018-May-14)

Pollution sources

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies air pollution by its source...

o Stationary (i.e. power plants, chemical plants, gas stations)

o Mobile (i.e. cars, trucks, planes)

Regional Haze Rule

A series of regulations issued to lessen haze in national parks and wilderness areas.

Smog

A form of air pollution resembling a smoky fog. It is a combinations of the words smoke and fog.

Solid Waste Disposal Act

1965 law enacted to help deal with new types and increased amount of discarded materials from consumer packaging, industry, construction, and agriculture.

Stewardship of Ocean, Coasts, and Great Lakes

2010 Executive Order issued by Pres. Barack Obama establishing a national policy to ensure the health of ocean, coastal, and Great Lakes ecosystems and resources.

Superfund

Federal program to clean up sites that have been contaminated with hazardous substances.

Originally, most of the money for the fund came from a tax on the industries that were at risk for creating the contamination. However, most of the funding since 2001 comes from public money.

It was created by the 1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.

Temperature Anomalies

The difference from a baseline of previous values - for example comparing one year's temperature to an average of the previous 30 years.

In climate change studies, anomalies convey more meaningful information than absolute values, because absolute values can depend on factors such as location and altitude.

Adding a new weather station, for example, would affect the overall average temperature differently depending on whether that station was atop an Alaskan mountain or in the middle of a Hawaiian rainforest. Anomalies tend to be more consistent among locations.

Referenced by...
Climate report shows impacts on daily life (2018-Nov-23)

U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change

1992 international treaty for working toward limiting greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere.

The framework does not set limits and there are no enforcement provisions. Instead, it works as a guideline for for future environmental treaties (often referred to as agreements or protocols).

U.N. Green Climate Fund (GCF)

An international fund that helps poor countries...

o Deal with climate change effects caused by countries that emit the most greenhouse gases.

o Develop clean energy technologies

U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP)

Federal program that coordinates research on Climate Change across several federal agencies and scientific organizations.

The program releases publications that assess the impacts of climate change.

It was established by 1990 Global Change Research Act

Referenced by...
Climate report shows impacts on daily life (2018-Nov-23)

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